Git & Github
Basics Concepts -- (init - add - commit - push)

Git & Github Basics Concepts -- (init - add - commit - push)


3 min read

Git and GitHub are essential tools for software developers that allow them to keep track of code changes, collaborate with others, and maintain the integrity of their codebase

Git is a version control system that allows developers to track changes to their code over time, while GitHub is a web-based platform for hosting Git repositories.

In this guide, we'll cover all the fundamental concepts of Git and GitHub, including how to create and manage repositories, branching and merging, and how to collaborate with others using pull requests. We'll also demonstrate how to use Git and GitHub with a simple "Hello World" app in Python.

Git Concepts:

  1. Initializing a Git repository: To initialize a new Git repository, navigate to your project directory in your terminal or command prompt and type "git init". This creates a new Git repository and starts tracking changes to your files.

  2. Staging and committing changes: After making changes to your code, you can stage those changes using "git add" and commit them using "git commit -m 'commit message'". This creates a snapshot of your changes that can be tracked over time.

  3. Creating and merging branches: Branches allow you to work on different features or versions of your code without affecting the main branch. To create a new branch, type "git branch [branch name]". To switch to a different branch, type "git checkout [branch name]". To merge a branch into the main branch, type "git merge [branch name]".

  4. Viewing project history: To view the history of your Git repository, use "git log". This shows a list of all the commits made to the repository, including the commit message, author, and date.

GitHub Concepts:

  1. Creating a repository on GitHub: To create a new repository on GitHub, sign in to your account and click the "New" button in the top left corner. Give your repository a name, description, and choose whether it should be public or private. You can also choose to add a README file, license, and .gitignore file at this stage.

  2. Cloning a repository: To clone a repository from GitHub to your local machine, navigate to the repository and copy the repository URL. Then, type "git clone [repository URL]" in your terminal or command prompt. This creates a new copy of the repository on your local machine.

  3. Collaborating with others: To collaborate with others on GitHub, you can use pull requests. A pull request allows you to suggest changes to a repository and have them reviewed by others before they are merged. To create a pull request, fork the repository, make your changes, and then create a new pull request from your fork.

Creating a "Hello World" App with Git and GitHub:

  1. Create a new file called "" in your preferred code editor.

  2. Type the following code:

print("Hello World!")
  1. Save the file and navigate to your terminal or command prompt.

  2. Navigate to the directory where your "" file is stored.

  3. Type "git init" to initialize a new Git repository.

  4. Type "git add ." to add all the files in the directory to the staging area.

  5. Type "git commit -m 'initial commit'" to commit the changes to the repository.

  6. On GitHub, create a new repository with the same name as your local repository.

  7. Copy the repository URL from GitHub and type "git remote add origin [repository URL]" in your terminal or command prompt.

  8. Type "git push -u origin main" to push your local repository to GitHub.

  9. To demonstrate branching and merging, create a new branch called "feature" using "git branch feature" and switch to it using "git checkout feature".

And that's it! You've just created a "Hello World" app and used Git to track changes and push them to GitHub. With these basic concepts, you're ready to start using Git for your own projects and collaborating with others. Happy coding!